The Inquisition

1633: Galileo Galilei was put on trial

for saying that the Earth revolves around

the Sun. We are not the center.

They knew better than God who seems

to have been the one who planned it.


[ Back in April 1633, Galileo agreed to plead guilty and was sentenced to an unlimited period of house arrest in his home in Florence for this offense. He gradually went blind and stopped looking to the heavens. It took until 1992 for the Catholic Church to formally admit that Galileo’s views on the solar system are correct. ]

Beyond What Is Seen

The mathematics told him that the star

was beyond the Milky Way, whole galaxies

beyond ours, but a young girl tending sheep

long before him looked into the night sky

and knew there was something unseen beyond.

Young Shepherdess Standing

William-Adolphe Bouguereau – Young Shepherdess Standing (1887)

Astronomer Edwin Hubble announced the discovery of other galaxies beyond the Milky Way in 1924. Before he made his discovery, everyone thought that our Milky Way galaxy was the only galaxy in the universe, and that there wasn’t much outside it besides the Magellanic Clouds, which were thought to be clouds of gas or dust. We know now that the Magellanic Clouds are really dwarf galaxies. He renamed the Andromeda Nebula the “Andromeda galaxy,” and he went on to discover 23 more separate galaxies. Within a few years of Hubble’s discovery, most astronomers came to agree that our galaxy is just one of millions.

Two Lifetimes

Today the farthest is closest to us.
Unseen by naked eyes, undiscoverable by observation.
Known by calculation, prediction and some faith.
Frozen home for a banished sea god.
Neptune, both our years, now, two lifetimes.


Though I was using Neptune’s closest passing of the year today as the starting place for this poem, I was thinking about someone who died recently. I felt a connection between Neptune’s orbit of about 165 years being like two lifetimes, and my lifetime being combined with the one lost.  Both of them unseen, but a presence felt, if not by calculation, then by a faith in some prediction that there is something out there beyond this world.

Studies in Relativity On A Summer Rainy Day

I was thinking about an Einstein quote while watching the rain falling.

“Put your hand on a hot stove for a minute, and it seems like an hour. Sit with a pretty girl for an hour, and it seems like a minute. That’s relativity.” ― Albert Einstein

That inspired today’s ronka poem.

summer rain


The rain has made the day longer

than twenty-four hours. The air is thick.

We walk slower. Clockworks struggle a bit

to advance. Time and space bend me

and this 5/14’s of a rainy sonnet.